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A moving experience

Written by  Author |   Thu, 14 November 2013 09:09

Escalators are an integral part of the daily lives of millions all over the world. Escalators are used around the world to move pedestrian traffic in places where elevators would be impractical. Principal areas of usage include department stores, shopping malls, airports, transit systems, convention centers, hotels, arenas, stadiums and public buildings.The first escalator-like machine appeared in the mid-19th century, two years after the first passenger elevator.

The beginnings
In 1859, Nathan Ames designed what he called Revolving Stairs in the US, generally acknowledged as the world's first escalator. But Ames was unable to put the invention into practical use; he died in 1860, and in fact the invention was never built.

The earliest working escalator was patented in 1892 by Jesse W. Reno, and was actually introduced in 1896 as a novelty ride at Coney Island, a theme park in New York. In that decade, George H. Wheeler patented a moving stairway with a moving handrail and flat steps that had to be boarded and exited from the side. Charles D. Seeberger bought Wheeler's patent in 1898 and went to work at the Otis Elevator Company developing the first step-type moving stairway. It was Seeberger who created the name "escalator", from the word scala (Latin for steps), and the word elevator, which was already in general use in the US by this time, and registered it as a trademark for a moving stairway.
Around the same time, moving walks made their debut, most notably in the form of special demonstration exhibitions at the Chicago Exposition of 1893 and the Paris Exposition of 1900.

Both Reno and Otis emerged as the two driving forces behind escalator development. In 1900 Reno raised the problematic heel of the inclined wheel tread, and succeeded in the practical installation of cleat-type moving stairway in an elevated station in New York City. In that same year, the Otis Company exhibited a step-type moving stairway at the Paris Exposition, and later brought them back to the US and installed them in a department store in Philadelphia. In 1911, Otis absorbed Reno and became the sole manufacturer. The company sold both step-type and cleat-type escalators and between 1900 and 1920 installed some 350 units, mainly at department stores and public transport institutions.
In the 1930s Mitsubishi Electric Corp. entered the escalator business, and began installing the devices in department stores and other major facilities in Japan. By the turn of the millennium the company emerged at the forefront of escalator innovation and design, culminating in the spectacular multiple spiral escalator installation at the Forum Shops at Caesar's Palace, in Las Vegas.

Hallé, Hocquardt, and Piat are the early European manufacturers. Piat  installed its "stepless" escalator in Harrods Knightsbridge store on November 16, 1898, though the company relinquished its patent rights to the department store.

Hocquardt received European patent rights for the Fahrtreppe in 1906. After the Exposition, Hallé continued to sell its escalator device in Europe, but was eventually eclipsed in sales by other major manufacturers.

In the first half of the twentieth century, several manufacturers developed their own escalator products, though they had to market their devices under different names, due to Otis' hold on the trademark rights to the word "escalator."

Manufacturing mergers
Kone and Schindler introduced their first escalator models several decades after the Otis Elevator Co., but they have grown to dominance in the field over time. 
Schindler now stands as the largest maker of escalators and second largest maker of elevators in the world, though their first escalator installation did not occur until 1936. In 1979, the company entered the United States market by purchasing Haughton Elevator; nine years later, Schindler assumed control of the North American escalator/elevator operations of Westinghouse.

Kone expanded internationally through acquisition in the 1970s, buying out Swedish elevator manufacturer Asea-Graham, and purchasing other minor French, German, and Austrian elevator makers before assuming control of Westinghouse's European elevator business. As the last "big four" manufacturers held on to the escalator market, KONE first acquired Montgomery Elevator Company, then took control of Germany's Orenstein & Koppel Rolltreppen.

Schindler escalators move millions of people per day
Schindler escalators provide safe, reliable and eco-friendly mobility in shopping centers, airports, railway stations and commercial buildings. All Schindler escalators are designed to meet governing safety codes and meet or exceed minimum ASME A17.1 codes.

Schindler 9300® AE
Schindler's 9300 Advanced Edition is the versatile escalator. Ideally suited for commercial applications. The Schindler 9300 AE can also be adapted for transport applications including stadiums, airports and exhibition halls.
• Configuration packages and rises up to 42 feet (higher rises up to 65' available upon request)
• Two, three and four flat step configurations
• Three step widths for optimal passenger flow and space requirements
• Tough 1/2" stainless steel sandwich panels for inclined balustrades
• Mechanical components designed for extreme demands of public transport operations, regardless of environmental conditions
• Weatherproofing options for outdoor operation
• Elegant, rounded balustrade, and innovative, stylish handrail entry for timeless appeal
• Unprecedented color choices for handrails, steps, skirt panels, decking, endcaps and more
• Over two dozen important safety features.

Schindler 9300 AE-10
• For rises of up to 26'-2 7/8" (8 m)
• For speeds of up to 100 fpm (0.5 m/s)

Schindler 9300 AE-20
• For rises of up to 42'- 7 3/4" (13 m)
• For speeds of up to 100 fpm (0.5 m/s) per ASME A17.1 for escalators.

KONE Escalators
Founded in 1910 and headquartered in Espoo, Finland, Kone is an international engineering and service company employing some 32,500 personnel worldwide. The firm is one of the largest manufacturers of elevators and escalators worldwide, and also provides maintenance services and modernization solutions. In addition, KONE builds and services automatic doors and gates.

KONE offers a comprehensive range of services covering sales, manufacturing, installation, maintenance, and modernization of elevators, escalators, and autowalks. These products are manufactured in Europe, Asia, and North America. KONE is a pioneer in introducing eco-efficient products, which have gained worldwide recognition for innovation and leading edge technology that reduce the total cost of ownership.

KONE TravelMaster™ Escalator 
Description The KONE TravelMaster is tailored for retail environment and it ensures an efficient and smooth ride to optimize the shopping experience.
Operational environment Indoor, semi-outdoor, outdoor
Min/max speed 0.5 m/s 
Inclination 30 or 35 degrees 
Pallet width 600, 800 or 1000 mm 
Rise / length Up to 9.5 m  

KONE TransitMaster™ escalator
Description Ideal heavy-duty escalator solution for the most demanding conditions
Operational environment Indoor, semi-outdoor, outdoor
Min/max speed 0.5, 0.65 or 0.75 m/s 
Inclination 27.3 or 30 degrees 
Pallet width 1000 mm 
Rise / length 18 m  

With a multitude of options, the KONE TransitMaster™ can accurately answer any need with unsurpassed reliability and availability. With the industry's leading drive and chain technology, KONE TransitMaster™ is the solution for people on the move.
The world rides on Otis
Otis elevators and escalators touch the lives of people in more than 200 countries around the world. 

Otis at a Glance
People                       Approximately 61,000 employees, with 53,000 outside the United States
Revenue                    US $12.4 billion in 2011, of which 83 percent was generated outside the United States
Installed Base            Approximately 2.5 million Otis elevators and escalators in operation worldwide
Service Base              More than 1.8 million elevators and escalators serviced worldwide
Countries                   Products offered in more than 200 countries and territories
Manufacturing            Major manufacturing facilities in the Americas, Europe and Asia
Engineering and Test  Centers  Engineering facilities in the United States, Austria, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Korea and Spain
Company's two tallest elevator test towers located in Shibayama, Japan (505 feet or 154 meters above ground; 89 feet or 27 meters below ground) and Bristol, Conn., United States (384 feet or 117 meters above ground)

ThyssenKrupp AG is a company based in Germany, which manufactures steel based products and other machineries, including elevators and escalators. ThyssenKrupp is a combination of the two German companies that merged together, Thyssen AG and Krupp AG.
ThyssenKrupp was established in 2001 after Thyssen AG and Krupp AG merged in 1999, hence the name was changed to ThyssenKrupp. In 2003, ThyssenKrupp acquired the Korean-based elevator company Dong Yang Elevator and the company was renamed to "ThyssenKrupp Dongyang" in Korea.
ThyssenKrupp continued to make a slightly improved, but basically similar, hydraulic system called "Oildraulic" that was the original version of the hydraulic elevator created by Rotary Co. Rotary Co. later changed its name to Dover Corp. and the elevators were split into a different division. ThyssenKrupp still makes traditional traction elevators along with MRL elevators.
In October of 2012, ThyssenKrupp discontinued the original hydraulic elevator system, Oildraulic, for a new Endura hydraulic system. It is supposed to run on more eco-friendly hydraulic fluid, but keeping the identical overall design.

Fujitec Elevator
Fujitec is a Japanese elevator and escalator manufacturer. The company was established in 1948.
Fujitec was founded by  Shotaru Uchiyama in 1948 and at that time it was located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Osaka. In 1964, a branch in Hong Kong was opened. Later in 1968, Fujitec opened a branch office in Korea. In 1972, Fujitec opened a branch in Singapore, registering the name as Fujitec Elevator Pte. Ltd.
In the 1970s, Fujitec built a testing tower in Ibaraki at a height of 150 meters. At that time it was the tallest of its kind in the world. In the 1980s, Fujitec established its American headquarter. Finally in 2006, Fujitec moved its headquarters to Miyatacho, Hikone, Shiga Prefecture, Japan.

Hyundai Escalator
HYUNDAI added elevators and escalators to their product range in 1984 and produced 100.000 unit elevators and escalators to date. HYUNDAI built the highest (205 m) elevator test tower, installed the fastest (18m/sn) elevator and fastest observation (7 m/sn) elevator in a tower.

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